Art Nouveau: Style and Influences
Starting around 1895 a complex phenomenon had been unfolding in Europe as a reaction to a world of art dominated at the time by the precise geometry of Neoclassical forms characterized by order, symmetry, and simplicity of style. This “new” philosophy became known as Art Nouveau and it was characterized by an organic style which was highly decorative, inspired by natural forms and structures, not only in flowers and plants but also in curved lines.
Art Nouveau jewelry created in France, Belgium, and other parts of Europe by a select group of avant-garde artists at the close of the nineteenth century was revolutionary. It reinvigorated what had become a formulaic naturalism with new forms drawn from outside sources, including the arts and crafts movement in Great Britain and the arts of Japan. The jewelry was also remarkable in that it redefined notions of preciousness. Platinum and diamonds, the preferred materials for high-style jewelry, were abandoned in favor of gold, enamel, colored gemstones, horn, and glass.
One of the major influences on Art Nouveau was the Symbolist Movement, which began in the 1880s. Imagery adopted by this group combined religious mysticism with eroticism. Art Nouveau combined inspiration from this source with some of the elements of Arts and Crafts philosophy; it is also highly varied and asymmetrical which reflected the political unease of the period. Art Nouveau, traces of which are discernible in the art of the Pre-Raphaelites and even in that of the 18th-century visionary poet William Blake.
Art Nouveau concentrated on the treatment of surface decoration. It is also characterised by long curving lines based on sinuous plant forms, and an element of fantasy. It was primarily a decorative style and as such was used particularly effectively in metalwork, jewellery, and glassware, and in book illustration, where the influence of Japanese prints is often evident. Another ubiquitous presence is the femme fatale – the seductive nymph of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.
Art Nouveau Jewelry: Leading Designers
Two of the leading exponents of Art Nouveau were Louis Comfort Tiffany, whose shimmering Favrile-glass vases and stained-glass lampshades were fantasies of iridescence, and René Lalique (1860-1945) who was a French jeweller and glassmaker.
Lalique became a designer of jewellery for firms such as Boucheron, Vever, and Cartier. Breaking free from historical styles, he based his designs on plant, bird, and insect forms. Emphasizing design rather than the costliness of material, he used enamel, ivory, glass, and horn as often as semiprecious stones and gems. His work had a profound effect throughout Europe.
Art Nouveau Jewelry: Techniques
Extensive Use of Enameling
Along with the creative energy came a mastery of technique in casting and carving of gold as well as the extensive use of enameling as never seen before. Probably the single most important technique used by Art Nouveau designers was enameling. The type of enameling used most often was known as Plique a’jour. Plique a’jour is defined as enameling that is transparent with no backing. The effect most often achieved by Plique a’jour enameling is likened to that of stained glass. The technique of applying this type of enameling was extremely difficult and very popular because it exemplified the jeweler’s skill and artistry.
This effect gave Art Nouveau jewelry a distinctive appearance much like a three dimensional painting. Other types of enameling that were also popular were basse-taille and guilloche enameling, techniques that required engraving the metal or raising a design, then fusing a thin layer of transparent enamel over the work. These and the techniques of Cloisonné’ Chamieve’ were made popular by Faberge in Russia around the turn of the century. Many times a craftsman would combine the use of different methods of enameling on the same piece.
Art Nouveau Jewelry: Collection Desirability & Designers
The Ultimate Question: should you add Art Nouveau to your jewelry collection?
Art Nouveau was a short-lived period in jewelry design. Some of the most popular materials such as enamel which forms a hard, durable surface, are susceptible to chipping and breakage upon impact. Therefore finding pieces in excellent condition are not abundant which makes them highly desirable.
Sage advice for any collector is to familiarize yourself with the most noteworthy designers or “Influencers” of a style. So we end this with guide with some of our favorites (click on the images below to enlarge):
- René Lalique
- Paul and Henri Vever
- Louis Comfort Tiffany
- Philippe Wolfers
- Paulding Farnham
- Georges Fouquet
- Henrie-Auguste Solié
- Henri Dubret